Muscles of the hip that pull your legs apart. Gluteus medius and minimus pull your legs outward. Inline skating, skiing and dance work these muscles.
A berry believed to promote powerful health properties. Its antioxidant content benefits in hair and skin and is used widely in makeup products. It may also support weight loss efforts
A colorless liquid with a pungent smell. Dilute acetic acid that is fermented becomes vinegar. It is a common additive in foods to neutralize acidity. It has many valuable industrial applications, mainly as an additive in the production of paint and photographic film. In skin care, it is often used in the removal of plantar warts.
A protective, oily layer on the skin's surface that functions as a shield against the environment. It also helps to regulate moisture loss and water retention.
Common human skin condition that has many forms. The most common and most familiar is acne vulgaris, which occurs most commonly in adolescence when testosterone increases in both sexes. The pimples, pustules, blackheads, and whiteheads occur because of inflammatory responses by the skin within both the hair follicles and the accompanying sebaceous glands. Scarring and psychological distress are common. It often clears up in most people in their late thirties or early forties, though it may persist longer.
Literally, "with oxygen." Aerobic exercise is the body's process of producing energy with oxygen in the bloodstream. Byproducts are carbon dioxide and water (breathing and perspiration). It's great for burning fat and strengthening your heart and lungs.
Also known as liver spots. They are not related to any malfunction of the liver. They are an increase in skin pigment from UV exposure and aging in general. They are mostly benign, nontoxic, and non-problematic. Some consider them unsightly and choose to have them removed by laser treatment.
Derived from seaweed, algae extract helps prevent wrinkles. It is a moisturizer that helps to prevent skin irritation.
On the pH scale, anything above 7 is alkaline or basic. It is non-acidic in pH terms. The pH scale is the measure of acidity in an aqueous solution. The pH scale runs from 1 to 14. Drinking water is neutral at a pH of 7. An alkaline pH above 7 indicates a low concentration of hydronium ions.
A substance that soothes and heals the skin while stimulating healthy tissue
Soothing, anti-inflammatory, and moisturizing liquid from the plant of the same name. It helps promote skin repair.
Soothing, anti-inflammatory, and moisturizing liquid from the plant of the same name. It helps promote skin repair.
The building blocks that make up proteins. Proteins are necessary to every living cell and are involved in every major process in the body, so amino acids are essential to a body's overall healthy function.
Literally, "without oxygen." In anaerobic exercise, energy is produced without oxygen, usually because the exercise intensity is such that the heart and lungs can't get enough oxygen to the muscles. Anaerobic exercise creates a byproduct called lactate, which builds up in the muscles and causes soreness and fatigue.
Condition that develops from lack of healthy blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, sallow appearance and oftentimes shortness of breath.
Nutrients found foods which can prevent or slow the oxidative damage done to our bodies by free radicals
A synthetically derived peptide developed by scientists to relax facial tension by reducing the excessive release of the neurotransmitters that cause facial muscles tense. It prohibits muscles from contracting to assist in the prevention of the formation of lines and wrinkles.
Vitamin C; can have skin lightening effect, helps keep and rebuild healthy collagen fibers
A sunscreen chemical that offers broad range protection against UVA rays
A kind of stretching that advocates bouncing to increase the amount of stretch. This is no longer recommended as it has been found to cause muscle tears and soreness.
Number of calories that that the body can burn while at rest but in the awakened state.
Effective, botanical skin lightener that decreases the melanin in the skin.
An organic compound in the peroxide family. It has many applications. In skin care, it is often used in the treatment of acne. It is a skin peeling agent that clears up pores, reduces the presence of bacteria, and increases skin turnover. It is also used as a common ingredient in teeth whitening and hair dyeing.
Loosens the bond between dead skin cells so they can be shed more effectively.
A plant derivative with therapeutic attributes
The study of the mechanics of muscular activity.
The percentage of your body mass that is not composed of lean muscle, water, bones or vital organs.
Botox Cosmetic is a non-surgical injection used to temporarily smooth moderate to severe lines, typically between the brows and on the forehead. A few tiny injections will provide a visible improvement in lines and usually lasts about four months. According to the Botox Cosmetic website, this treatment utilizes "a purified protein produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium, which reduces the activity of the muscles that cause frown lines between the brows to form over time". This injectable procedure is considered to be relatively painless, but common, short term side effects may include redness and minor bruising
One of the main three nutrients. Carbohydrates are broken down into two categories: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates consist of sugar and starches, while complex carbohydrates consist of fiber.
the most common type of skin cancer. It is an out of control growth of mutated epithelial cells. 95% of skin cancers are carcinomas. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common carcinomas.
This is a process of using makeup to highlight the natural features of your face such as your cheekbones, nose, and jawline. Blush is applied around these areas and not on them to create a shadowing effect. It slims and accentuates the natural contours of the face.
A combination of the words cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. As against cosmetics which serve to hide skin imperfections, cosmeceuticals are topical treatments which penetrate the skin’s cells to actually influence the way the skin’s cells work.
The layer of skin under the epidermis. It is composed of connective tissue and forms a cushion from external pressure stresses. It contains the hair follicles, blood vessels, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
An inflammation of the outer layer of the skin, the epidermis. Symptoms include, dryness, redness, itching, flaking, and cracking. The cause is unknown but suspected to be an allergic reaction to certain fragrances and fabrics. Scratching can lead to spreading and scarring.
A class of protein produced by a living organism that is capable of accelerating or producing biochemical changes.
The outermost layer of the skin. The epithelial layer is a waterproof, protective wrap around the body. Through the process of keratinization, the cells of the epidermis are replaced about every 27 days. It has five layers. The top layer, called the stratum corneum, is composed of 15 to 350 layers of dead skin cells and the waterproof substance called keratin.
Isolated aromatics of plants, flowers, leaves and peels. They are pungent and contain the "essence" of the plant they are derived from. They are used in perfumes, hair conditioners and pomades. Common essential oils are lavender, peppermint and wintergreen.
A cell ubiquitous in connective tissue that makes and secretes collagen.
Reactive or unstable molecules that cause aging and degenerative diseases. Free radicals often result from oxygen, environmental toxins, sunshine, and other foreign body substances. Chemicals that destroy collagen and cause wrinkles, lines, etc.
Skin lightener − prevents initiation of melanogenesis. Primarily used to prevent discoloration. Soothes skin.
Vertical forehead creases between the eyebrows
Potent antioxidant possessing skin repairing capabilities
An excellent natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredient
Natural or synthetic hair that is attached to existing hair to lengthen it, add color, or conceal bald spots. There are several ways to attach it including fusion, weaving, and clipping it in.
responsible for production of hair on the skin. The follicles go through growth cycles with 90% of follicles growing at any one time. Every hair follicle has an attached sebaceous gland which lubricates the hair with oil as it grows.
Known for its proven vascular benefits, this ingredient complex strengthens capillaries to reduce leaking blood, one major cause of dark under-eye circles. Haloxyl also contains natural enzymes that break down the blood and trigger fading of dark under-eye circles. This intensive ingredient complex is most effective when used in eye creams to improve dark circles and puffiness, but can also be found in treatments for spider veins.
Substance that can attract water, usually out of the air. Humectants are considered to be moisturizers.
A naturally occurring substance in skin, which holds water in the dermis giving skin its thickness and reducing the appearance of wrinkles and lines. The “non-oil” component to the skin’s natural moisturizing mechanism.
Skin pigment lightening agent; a maximum of 2% may be obtained over the counter; higher concentrations available by prescription. Side effects include: irritation, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation
Over production of pigment. Common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin
Products or ingredients that are less likely to cause allergic reactions (in people prone to allergies) than other products
Not technically part of the skin, but it binds the skin to muscle and bone. It contains more blood vessels and nerve endings and is also known as subcutaneous tissue.
Diminished pigmentation; the loss of melanin, often due to genetics, skin resurfacing techniques and aging.
a bacterial infection of the skin from the staphylococcus bacteria. It usually occurs in children and is highly contagious. Symptoms are fluid-filled blisters which break and crust over with a yellowish tint.
A substance or ingredient that consistently produces an adverse response (such as reddening, swelling, itching, burning, or blistering) in most of the population. Irritants are not to be confused with allergens.
Lax skin and pockets of fat that hang below the lower edge of the jaw also referred to as “turkey neck”
Epidermal skin cell that makes keratin and eventually undergoes differentiation to become a dead, flattened cell of the stratum corneum
A milk-derived alpha hydroxy acid that conveys a mild exfoliative effect, plus helps to increase the penetration of key ingredients
Normalizes all skin types, and stimulates cellular growth and regeneration
Contains citric acid and vitamins B and C; having astringent and toning effects.
Skin lightener; deemed as more potent than kojic acid or vitamin C for this function. Antibacterial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiviral.
A skin conditioning agent and an essential fatty acid that helps maintain optimal skin health and function
Organic products found in living systems that are insoluble in water, like fats. Cell membranes are made of lipids
Act as a delivery system to deeply hydrate the skin. Microscopic sacs that act like a delivery system, depositing product ingredients into the skin. When the liposomes "melt," ingredients are released.
A newly recognized antioxidant derived from red fruits and vegetables, especially tomatoes. Lycopenes are potent antioxidants against sun-produced free radicals.
Non-irritating, non-acidic form of Vitamin C, which helps to stimulate collagen production
A naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acid derived from a variety of fruits, including apples.
Also known as chamomile, it improves tissue regeneration, reduces inflammation, and encourages the healing of wounds
Collagen boosting dual-peptide that softens and smoothes the skin.
Process involves physically scrubbing the skin with an abrasive including include microfiber cloths, adhesive exfoliation sheets, micro-bead facial scrubs, crepe paper, crushed apricot kernel or almond shells, sugar or salt crystals, pumice, and abrasive materials such as sponges, loofahs and brushes
The pigment that naturally colors the hair and skin
The most lethal type of skin cancer. It is an uncontrolled growth the melanocyte cells responsible for the colored pigment of our skin, melanin.
Cosmetic procedure in which all or part of the stratum corneum is removed by light abrasion, used to improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, treat hyperpigmentation, and reduce or remove scars.
Differentiation of cells and tissues in the early embryo which results in establishing the form and structure of the various organs and parts of the body
An ingredient which provides the skin with sulfur which is an essential element necessary for the production of sulfur based amino acids; essential to the structure of collagen
Moisturizes the skin.
Skin lightener. Reduces tyrosinase activity.
Skin lightener. Inhibits glycosylation of pro-tyrosinase. Considered mild and non-irritating
Vitamin B-3, helps maintain a healthy skin system
Promotes microcirculation, essential for all cells to maintain cellular metabolism (creation of energy necessary for individual cell to perform its function).
Does not plug the pores of the skin.
These products do not plug the pores of the skin.
A peptide that on hydrolysis yields eight amino acids
A potent sunscreen that absorbs UVB rays.
A potent sunscreen that absorbs UVA rays
Potent, natural antibiotic, anti-acneic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. Also has properties that fight skin damage from intrinsic aging, solar radiation, and any tissue injured by any mechanism.
FDA approved UVA absorbing chemical sunscreen ingredient. Provides UVB/UVA protection.
pentapeptide that, as a fragment of collagen, acts in vitro to stimulate synthesis of connective tissue composed of proteins (collagen I, III, IV) and polysaccharides (GAGS, hyaluronic acid), as part of a feedback mechanism in fibroblasts.
A vitamin B complex factor used widely in skin and hair products for its conditioning properties.
Digestive enzyme, collected from papaya fruit. Hydrolyzes and digests proteins, and has the ability to digest dead tissue without affecting the surrounding live tissue.
The layer between the dermis and epidermis that connects the two. It is composed of loose connective tissue and has strong binding capabilities due to papillae, or finger-like projections.
A family of synthetically produced preservatives − food grade; deemed safe and unlikely to irritate the skin. Widely and globally used for cosmetics due to their strong anti-microbial and anti-fungal benefits. Parabens have become controversial due to concerns relating to toxicity, but deemed safe by the US FDA
Any member of a class of compounds of low molecular weight that yield two or more amino acids on hydrolysis. Peptides form the constituent parts of proteins
Natural substances found in all living cells that help draw water from the air and seal moisture into the skin
Premature breakdown of the skin's cells caused by damage from the sun's UVA and UVB rays
A hair styling product that is usually petroleum jelly based with other ingredients like beeswax and minerals. It is waxy to the touch and effectively styles the hair without hardening.
Combination of glycerin and water it is a clear, colorless liquid that is among the most common moisture-carrying vehicles in skin care. It delivers superb permeation through the skin and softens and moisturizes the skin. Attract water and function as moisturizers to enhance the appearance of skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness
A response by the immune system causing abnormal growth of the skin. Symptoms include red and white patches of scaly skin that itches. It usually forms first on the knees and elbows. It may be related to an inflammation of the joints. It has a genetic component and runs in families.
A broad description for an inflammatory reaction by the skin. Rashes can be localized or cover the whole body. The treatment varies with the cause, and evaluation can be difficult. They are often accompanied by redness and itchy, splotchy, bumpy skin. Common remedies include steroid creams.
Known as a "cosmetic filler" this is an injectable treatment designed to "plump up" furrows in the skin. Restylane is typically used to dramatically minimize vertical lip lines and the "parenthesis" lines around the mouth, although they can also be used to volumize the lips or add volume in any deep wrinkles. Comprised of Hyaluronic Acid, a natural component of skin. Common, but short-term side effects include swelling, bruising and possible discoloration. Results are expected to last between six months to a year
A thicker section of the papillary region. It is a weave of dense connective tissue, collagen, and elastin. All the roots of the hair, blood vessels, sweat glands, and fingernails are found here.
A derivative of Vitamin A, this is a natural occurring molecule in all our bodies that helps maintain our skin strength and appearance. This is why it is such an important ingredient in many skin care products.
Chronic form of acne showing increased redness or acne-like eruptions on the cheeks, nose, chin, forehead and/or eyelids. The treatment of skin eruptions may include long-term treatment with topical antifungals, steroids, or antibiotics.
Beta hydroxy acid. Encourages desquamation by "dissolving" intracellular "cement" with no inflammatory effects, also deep cleans pores and removes debris from hair follicles. Occurs naturally in wintergreen leaves, sweet birch and selected plants. Medically used as an exfoliant and debriding agent. Cosmetically used in some chemical peels and to reduce oiliness, acne and the appearance of fine lines.
a microscopic gland that synthesizes and secrets oil to the skin and hair. For each hair on the body there is one sebaceous gland. They are also found in skin with no hair like the eyelids and genitals. There are no sebaceous glands on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet.
a natural fat extracted from the African Shea tree. It is a waxy substance that is edible but is used in many cosmetics including hair conditioners, skin moisturizers, pomades and sunscreens.
Sirtuins are a family of enzymes that regulate gene activity and cellular life spans. Sirtuins prolong the life of fibroblasts − the little machines which manufacture collagen. They do this by suppressing excess gene activity and boosting antioxidant activity.
Any skin coloring caused by melanin deposits. The coloring may be modified by substances in the blood, such as several blood pigments, bile, or malarial parasites.
One of the most effective ingredients to attract and hold moisture to the skin
Derived from amino acids, a high-performance humectant due to its moisture-binding ability, recommended for dry, delicate and sensitive skins.
An acronym for "Sun Protection Factor". The number represents the Protection Factor that gives the number of minutes you can stay in the sun without burning (wearing no SPF) multiplied by the number of minutes you can stay in the sun after applying the sunscreen (wearing SPF). For example, if you naturally burn in 10 minutes and you apply a SPF 30 sunscreen, you can stay out in the sun for 300 minutes with the product on
Either of the sections of DNA occurring at the extreme ends of each chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
This is a hair care product applied to the hair prior to blow drying or using a flat iron to prevent damage caused by high temperatures.
A naturally occurring white pigment and pacifier that offers physical sunscreen protection against both UVA and UVB rays
Used for medium depth skin peeling mostly used for evening out skin tone and getting rid of imperfections
Antioxidant that protects from free radicals
Generally considered the healthiest of the fats, unsaturated fat is known to lower cholesterol levels.
Individual that consumes only NON-animal derived foods.
A lipid-soluble antioxidant, that is also been used for decades to soothe skin and alleviate a range of dermatological conditions
Eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. They are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. Supplements containing all eight are generally referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g. B1, B2, B3).
A lipid-soluble vitamin, that is one of the most potent natural antioxidants.
Oil-free noncomedogenic ingredients that replenish moisture, prevent further moisture loss, and self-adjust to skin's needs, absorbing only where needed.
A source of salicin, the chemical that led to the introduction of aspirin, wild bark extract is an anti-inflammatory agent delivered to the skin cells in liposomes that enhance penetration through the epidermis. It is an ingredient in acne treatment products.
A natural ingredient valued in skincare for its astringent and tonic properties.
Also called plum oil. Used for its emollient properties and anti-inflammatory properties. Has been shown to be effective for dry skin.
A synthetic fatty acid known used as a skin conditioning agent
Used to fight skin irritation. Often used for aroma therapy as well.
A natural occurring element used as a co-factor by the skin to produce oils.